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Revision #3 to TR10-057 | 22nd October 2013 22:46

A Full Characterization of Quantum Advice

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Revision #3
Authors: Scott Aaronson, Andrew Drucker
Accepted on: 22nd October 2013 22:46
Downloads: 103
Keywords: 


Abstract:

We prove the following surprising result: given any quantum state rho on n qubits, there exists a local Hamiltonian H on poly(n) qubits (e.g., a sum of two-qubit interactions), such that any ground state of H can be used to simulate rho on all quantum circuits of fixed polynomial size. In terms of complexity classes, this implies that BQP/qpoly is contained in QMA/poly, which supersedes the previous result of Aaronson that BQP/qpoly is contained in PP/poly. Indeed, we can exactly characterize quantum advice, as equivalent in power to untrusted quantum advice combined with trusted classical advice.

Proving our main result requires combining a large number of previous tools -- including a result of Alon et al. on learning of real-valued concept classes, a result of Aaronson on the learnability of quantum states, and a result of Aharonov and Regev on "QMA+ super-verifiers" -- and also creating some new ones. The main new tool is a so-called majority-certificates lemma, which is closely related to boosting in machine learning, and which seems likely to find independent applications. In its simplest version, this lemma says the following. Given any set S of Boolean functions on n variables, any function f in S can be expressed as the pointwise majority of m=O(n) functions f1,...,fm in S, such that each fi is the unique function in S compatible with O(log|S|) input/output constraints.



Changes to previous version:

We have corrected some significant issues with previous drafts. First, the definition of YQP machines needed to be amended to correct a deficiency in the previous definition. This change appears necessary to preserve the claim BQP/qpoly = YQP/poly. The revised definition of YQP/poly is actually more natural, and has the same intuitive interpretation.

The second significant issue we have addressed is that analyses of Local-Hamiltonian reductions for QMA in previous works do not immediately supply enough information to yield our claimed results about the expressive power of ground states. In the present version, we prove the needed properties by a detailed analysis of reductions due to Kitaev and to Oliveira and Terhal. For further discussion of these points, see p. 6.


Revision #2 to TR10-057 | 25th November 2011 19:14

A Full Characterization of Quantum Advice





Revision #2
Authors: Scott Aaronson, Andrew Drucker
Accepted on: 25th November 2011 19:14
Downloads: 311
Keywords: 


Abstract:

We prove the following surprising result: given any quantum state rho on n qubits, there exists a local Hamiltonian H on poly(n) qubits (e.g., a sum of two-qubit interactions), such that any ground state of H can be used to simulate rho on all quantum circuits of fixed polynomial size. In terms of complexity classes, this implies that BQP/qpoly is contained in QMA/poly, which supersedes the previous result of Aaronson that BQP/qpoly is contained in PP/poly. Indeed, we can exactly characterize quantum advice, as equivalent in power to untrusted quantum advice combined with trusted classical advice.

Proving our main result requires combining a large number of previous tools -- including a result of Alon et al. on learning of real-valued concept classes, a result of Aaronson on the learnability of quantum states, and a result of Aharonov and Regev on "QMA+ super-verifiers" -- and also creating some new ones. The main new tool is a so-called majority-certificates lemma, which is closely related to boosting in machine learning, and which seems likely to find independent applications. In its simplest version, this lemma says the following. Given any set S of Boolean functions on n variables, any function f in S can be expressed as the pointwise majority of m=O(n) functions f1,...,fm in S, such that each fi is the unique function in S compatible with O(log|S|) input/output constraints.



Changes to previous version:

Corrected a minor error in the statement of Theorem 1. We thank Ashwin Nayak for bringing this to our attention.


Revision #1 to TR10-057 | 2nd April 2010 18:19

A Full Characterization of Quantum Advice





Revision #1
Authors: Scott Aaronson, Andrew Drucker
Accepted on: 2nd April 2010 18:19
Downloads: 693
Keywords: 


Abstract:

We prove the following surprising result: given any quantum state rho on n qubits, there exists a local Hamiltonian H on poly(n) qubits (e.g., a sum of two-qubit interactions), such that any ground state of H can be used to simulate rho on all quantum circuits of fixed polynomial size. In terms of complexity classes, this implies that BQP/qpoly is contained in QMA/poly, which supersedes the previous result of Aaronson that BQP/qpoly is contained in PP/poly. Indeed, we can exactly characterize quantum advice, as equivalent in power to untrusted quantum advice combined with trusted classical advice.

Proving our main result requires combining a large number of previous tools -- including a result of Alon et al. on learning of real-valued concept classes, a result of Aaronson on the learnability of quantum states, and a result of Aharonov and Regev on "QMA+ super-verifiers" -- and also creating some new ones. The main new tool is a so-called majority-certificates lemma, which is closely related to boosting in machine learning, and which seems likely to find independent applications. In its simplest version, this lemma says the following. Given any set S of Boolean functions on n variables, any function f in S can be expressed as the pointwise majority of m=O(n) functions f1,...,fm in S, such that each fi is the unique function in S compatible with O(log|S|) input/output constraints.



Changes to previous version:

Minor correction


Paper:

TR10-057 | 1st April 2010 23:46

A Full Characterization of Quantum Advice


Abstract:

We prove the following surprising result: given any quantum state rho on n qubits, there exists a local Hamiltonian H on poly(n) qubits (e.g., a sum of two-qubit interactions), such that any ground state of H can be used to simulate rho on all quantum circuits of fixed polynomial size. In terms of complexity classes, this implies that BQP/qpoly is contained in QMA/poly, which supersedes the previous result of Aaronson that BQP/qpoly is contained in PP/poly. Indeed, we can exactly characterize quantum advice, as equivalent in power to untrusted quantum advice combined with trusted classical advice.

Proving our main result requires combining a large number of previous tools -- including a result of Alon et al. on learning of real-valued concept classes, a result of Aaronson on the learnability of quantum states, and a result of Aharonov and Regev on "QMA+ super-verifiers" -- and also creating some new ones. The main new tool is a so-called majority-certificates lemma, which is closely related to boosting in machine learning, and which seems likely to find independent applications. In its simplest version, this lemma says the following. Given any set S of Boolean functions on n variables, any function f in S can be expressed as the pointwise majority of m=O(n) functions f1,...,fm in S, such that each fi is the unique function in S compatible with O(log|S|) input/output constraints.



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